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Informed Machine Learning – A Taxonomy and Survey of Integrating Knowledge into Learning Systems

Author: L. von Rüden, S. Mayer, K. Beckh, B. Georgiev, S. Giesselbach, R. Heese, B. Kirsch, J. Pfrommer, A. Pick, R. Ramamurthy, M. Walczak, J. Garcke, C. Bauckhage, J. Schuecker
Journal: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Year: 2020

Citation information

L. von Rüden, S. Mayer, K. Beckh, B. Georgiev, S. Giesselbach, R. Heese, B. Kirsch, J. Pfrommer, A. Pick, R. Ramamurthy, M. Walczak, J. Garcke, C. Bauckhage, J. Schuecker,
IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering,
2020,
IEEE,
https://doi.org/10.1109/TKDE.2021.3079836

Despite its great success, machine learning can have its limits when dealing with insufficient training data. A potential solution is the additional integration of prior knowledge into the training process which leads to the notion of informed machine learning. In this paper, we present a structured overview of various approaches in this field. We provide a definition and propose a concept for informed machine learning which illustrates its building blocks and distinguishes it from conventional machine learning. We introduce a taxonomy that serves as a classification framework for informed machine learning approaches. It considers the source of knowledge, its representation, and its integration into the machine learning pipeline. Based on this taxonomy, we survey related research and describe how different knowledge representations such as algebraic equations, logic rules, or simulation results can be used in learning systems. This evaluation of numerous papers on the basis of our taxonomy uncovers key methods in the field of informed machine learning.